More On Oracle Database User Calls
On May 7th I posted a blog entry entitled, Understanding user calls. This was a result of my frustration with the words being casually used, yet many DBAs (including myself for many years) not really knowing what they mean. Since user calls is one of the key workload statistics and it can also be used for predictive analysis, I decided to blog about it, running a number of tests to demonstrate its definition.
Since the original posting, I have had some wonderful conversations (especially with my students in Houston and Munich) and have been thinking about other interesting scenarios. The results of these other scenarios is what this blog is all about.
For a quick review, the key to understanding a user call is to remember we're referring to an Oracle client/user process making a single request to its server process. Period. As I explore the various scenarios below it's easy to get distracted and confused unless we stick to this definition. And when we do this, regardless of all the activity surrounding the scenario, the number of user calls will clearly emerge. So let's get started!
The DDL effect.
I ran a number of tests creating and dropping both tables and procedures. Without exception, all tests showed two user calls where made; a parse and an execute. I ran create table, drop table, create procedure, drop procedure, and I change the number of columns in the table creation statement and the number of SQL statements in the procedure. Every single DDL statement resulted in two user calls. I'm confident that the client process takes the entire statement, creates a single parse and execute call, bundles them into a single SQL*Net action (don't want to use the word call here) and sends the bundle to the server process. The result was always two user calls (11gR2 v$[sess|sys]stat #7) and one SQL*Net round trip (11gR2 v$[sess|sys]stat #557).
The recursive SQL effect.
The short answer is, no effect. The long answer: As background, a recursive statement is more than just SQL a developer does not type. It is formally defined by its depth. A statement's depth can be found by tracing the SQL and looking for the dep entry. If it is greater than zero, then it has been tagged as recursive SQL. Here is a link to an excerpt from my Firefighting book with more details.
This situation is closely related to the previous situation (The DDL effect). For example, when a table is created Oracle must create additional SQL (that is, recursive SQL) to insert data into the various data dictionary objects, such as tab$ and col$.
Here is the SQL I used for this test. Each of the 500 select statement iterations will be considered recursive SQL.
declare looper number; the_count number; begin for looper in 1..500 loop select count(*) into the_count from customers; end loop; end; /
Without exception, the above anonymous pl/sql resulted in two user calls and a single SQL*Net roundtrip. It appears the SQL*Plus client process batches the two calls (parse and execute) into a single SQL*Net action and the server process performs the rest of the work. So while the server process may perform lots and lots of work, because the client process only issued a parse and execute call to the server process, only two user calls result.
The multiple statement effect.
If multiple statements are not included within an anonymous pl/sql block, then each is separately parsed, executed, and if necessary fetches occur. (Picture yourself typing one statement at a time into SQL*Plus and you've got the right idea.) As you can imagine, the user call count can quickly grow.
However, if the statements are contained within a pl/sql block, then the user process batches all the statements together and sends them to its server process as a logical unit. The result is only two user calls; a parse and an execute. If the client process asks for information from its server process (like the put_line in the below code example) then a fetch call is required for a total of three user calls.
For example, take a look at the code below, which is modified code from the previous section. Only three user calls resulted regardless of how many SQL statement were contained in the pl/sql block, their type (select, update, commit, etc.) or placement in the anonymous block (inside the loop or out). As I'll discuss below, where we place the put_line statement does indeed affect the number of fetches. Notice that this code uses explicit cursors and the cursor is programmatically fetched one row at at time. The key is the server process is doing the fetching and only sends the final result back to the client process resulting in a single user process fetch. This scenario demonstrates the importance of remembering that a user call originates from the user process, not the server process.
set serveroutput on declare cursor customer_cur is select owner,status from customers; customer_rec customer_cur%ROWTYPE; the_count number; begin the_count := 0; open customer_cur; loop fetch customer_cur into customer_rec; exit when customer_cur%NOTFOUND; the_count := the_count + 1; end loop; dbms_output.put_line('The count is '||the_count); end; /
If the above code is modified by simply moving the put_line inside the loop, then the number of user call fetches is dependent on both the number of actual fetches and the fetch array size. In my experiment, there are 71,353 rows in the customer table, so the final few lines look like this:
... The count is 71350 The count is 71351 The count is 71352 The count is 71353 PL/SQL procedure successfully completed. SQL> show arraysize arraysize 15
If you have been following along closely, you should be able to guess how many user calls executing this anonymous pl/sql block required. There is a single parse and execute call plus one user fetch related to user call for every 15 rows returned. Since there were 71,353 rows, the number of fetches required were 4,757 (round 4,756.8666 up to nearest integer, that is, which is also known as a ceiling function). So the total number of user calls should be 1+1+4757 which is 4759. And YES, that is exactly what occurred when I tested this multiple times!
Just for fun I reset the array size to 200 and reran the SQL. The number of user calls should be 1+1+ceil(71353/200) which is 359... and it was!
The procedure effect.
Here is an example of a procedure containing the anonymous pl/sql block shown above.
create procedure p1 is looper number; the_count number; begin for looper in 1..500 loop select count(*) into the_count from customers; end loop; end; /
Once again and without exception, when running the above procedure the user process recorded only two user calls for the procedure creation, dropping, or execution. Even with additional SQL inside and outside of the loop, only two user calls were made by the client process. But as I demonstrated in the Multiple Statement Effect section above, if data is returned to the client process than fetches will occur.
Obviously, there are an infinite number of scenarios I could have come up with, but I think you get the idea: There is always a single parse and execute. And if data is returned to the client process, then for each fetch of this data, there is an additional user call. I find it is extremely helpful to remember a user call is always taken from the perspective of a user process, not a server process.
Thanks for reading!
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Craig Shallahamer is a long time Oracle DBA who specializes in predictive analytics, machine learning and Oracle performance tuning. Craig is a performance researcher and blogger, consultant, author of two books, an enthusiastic conference speaker a passionate teacher and an Oracle ACE Director. More about Craig Shallahamer...
If you have any questions or comments, feel free to email me directly at craig at orapub.com.
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